Introduction to Organization Behaviour notes – Organization Behaviour

AN INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR

 Objectives

By the end of this topic the learner should be able to:

  • Definition organizational behavior.
  • Demonstrate anunderstanding of the importance of studying organization behavioral
  • Describe the scope of organization behavior as a discipline




Meaning and Scope of Organization Behaviour

Organization

Comprise of two or more people engaged in a systematic and co­ordinate effort , persistently over a period of time in pursuit of goals .

Behaviour

Behaviour is defined as what people do which can be observed or measured.

What is organization Behaviour?

Organization behaviour is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals,  groups and structure have on behaviour within organizations for the purpose of applying  such knowledge towards improving an organizations effectiveness.

Why study organization behaviour/ importance?

The pace of change in organization is accelerating and transformation is occurring at work place. Therefore its time for organization, to know how  to  combat  change  for the prosperity of the organizations. The following are trends that are currently in most organizations;



Trends in Current Organizations

The following are trends that are currently in most organization.

i. Globalization

Globalization refers to economic , social and cultural connectivity  with people  in other  parts of the world. It’s an ongoing process which influences aspects of organizations which some are advantageous and others are disadvantageous.

Globalization is applauded for increasing organizational efficiency and providing a broader network to     attract valuable knowledge and skills while it also presents new challenges like; competitive pressures , market volatility , longer working hours , heavier  workloads and work ­ family conflict amongst others.

ii.  Information Technology

The internet and other forms of information technology are changing daily e.g.

  • It is connecting people around the planet and allowing small businesses in developing          countries to compete in global market place within organization.
  • It has reshaped the dynamics of organization power and politics.
  • It has created new standards for competitive advantage through knowledge management.
  • It has brought about telecommunication where employees work from home with a computer connection to the office.
  • It has also    facilitated   virtual  teams  which are cross­        functional   groups that operate across space, time and            organizational boundaries with members who communicate mainly through information technologies.

iii. The changing workforce.

Dimension of workforce involves primary and secondary diversity. Primary dimension involve; gender, ethnicity, age, race , sexual orientation , mental/physical qualities that represent individual’s socialization and self identity .Secondary dimension involve education, marital status, religion and work place. Diversity of this workforce presents both challenges and opportunities in organizations. Opportunities like ;competitive advantage , reverse of market share among others .Challenges  involve  racism, stereotyping conflicts e.t.c

iv. Emerging Employment Relationships

The changing workforce, new information & communication technology and globalization have fueled substantial changes in employment relationships. Employees face increasing turbulence in their work/employment, where they  perform a variety of work  activities  rather than hold specific  jobs  and  are  expected  to continuously  learn skills  that  will  keep them employed .This brings implications on job design, organizational loyalty and  work stress.

v.  Work Place Values And Ethics

Values represent stable, long ­lasting beliefs about what is important  in a  variety  of situation that guide decisions and action, while ethics is the study of moral principles or values that determine whether actions are right or wrong and outcomes are good and bad. Companies are learning to apply values in a global  environment and they  are under  pressure to abide by ethical values and higher standards of cooperate social responsibility.



Scope and Organization Disciplines

Organization behavior is an applied behavioral science that is built on contributions from a number of behavioral disciplines;

i. Psychology

Psychology is the science that seeks to measure, explain and sometimes change  the  behavior of human and other animals.

Organizational psychologist have  contributed  to the following  working conditions;  learning , perception ,personality , emotions ,training, leadership effectiveness, needs and motivational forces , job satisfaction ,decision making processes, performance appraisals, attitude measurement , employee ­selection techniques ,work design and job stress.

ii.  Social psychology

Social psychology blends concepts from both psychology and sociology , where it  focuses on peoples influence on one another .Social psychologist have made significant  contributions in the areas of measuring, understanding & changing attitudes , communications patterns and building trust .They have also made contributions to group behavior power and conflict.

iii.  Sociology

Sociology studies people in relation to their social environment  or  culture  .It has contributed to research on organization culture , formal organizations theory & structure, organizational technology, communications ,power and conflict.

iv.  Anthropology

Anthropology is the study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities. Anthropologist work on cultures and environment has enabled more understanding in fundamental values, attitudes , behavioral between  people  in different  countries  and  within different organizations.

v. Economics

This studies the behavior of humans beings  in the  process of  producing  goods  and  services and also in earning and consuming of income .It includes the following ; use of resources ,scarcity , cost , decision making ,negotiation and organizational power.

Revision questions

  1. Outline the current trends in organizations?
  2. What is the importance of studying organizational behaviour?
  3. Distinguish between behavior and organization?