Database Systems – KASNEB Syllabus



This paper is intended to equip the candidate with the knowledge, skills and attitudes that will enable him/her to design, develop, administer and manage databases.


A candidate who passes this paper should be able to:

  • Create databases to solve business problems
  • Write structured query language (SQL) statements to manipulate data in databases
  • Handle transactions and concurrency controls
  • Administer databases
  • Integrate databases and other applications
  • Manage database integrity


Introduction to databases

  • Overview of records, files and databases
  • History of database systems
  • Traditional file systems versus the database approach
  • Characteristics, importance and limitations of database systems
  • Database components and architecture

File organisation techniques

  • Storage structures and blocking
  • Structured and unstructured data
  • Unordered files
  • Sequential files
  • Indexing

Database models

  • The role of data modelling
  • The hierarchical model
  • The network model
  • The relational model
  • The object-oriented model
  • The object-relational model
  • Database model selection criteria

Database development life cycle

  • Data and user requirements
  • Specification of database requirements
  • Stages of database development
  • Conceptual, logical and physical database design
  • Testing the database functionality

Relational database model

  • Relational database concepts and properties
  • E-R database design
  • Database design anomalies
  • Normalisation and denormalisation
  • Relational algebra
  • Creating database design
  • Implementing database design

Structured query language (SQL)

  • Data definition language
  • Data manipulation language
  • Structure of SQL statements
  • Data control
  • In-built functions
  • Writing SQL statements
  • Using SQL functions
  • Optimising SQL queries

Transaction management and concurrency control

  • Overview of transaction management
  • Properties of a transaction
  • Serialisability and concurrency control
  • Lock-based and timestamp-based protocols
  • Types of transaction failures
  • Transaction recovery concepts and mechanisms

Database administration

  • Overview of database administration
  • Types of database users
  • Functions and roles of database administrators
  • Monitoring database performance
  • Database tuning

Database security and integrity

  • Security and integrity concepts
  • Social, ethical and legal database issues
  • Threats to database security and integrity
  • Managing threats
  • Establishing data backup and restore procedures

Distributed database systems

  • Overview of distributed database systems
  • Distribution methods – fragmentation and replication
  • Concurrency control mechanisms in distributed systems
  • Two-tier database architecture
  • Three-tier database architecture

Data warehousing and data mining

  • Overview of data warehousing
  • Characteristics of a data warehouse
  • Components of a data warehouse
  • Types of data warehouses
  • Overview of data mining
  • Tools and techniques of data mining

Integrating databases with other applications

  • Importance of integrating databases with other applications
  • Integrating databases with other applications
  • Basics of developing web enabled database applications

Emerging issues and trends

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